We have published over 30 articles in refereed journals, numerous reports, a couple of book chapters and a book. Entitled “Enabling Innovation: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Fostering Technological Innovation“, the book develops a model for grassroots, user-led innovation applicable to agriculture, industry, economy and IT drawn from field experience. A selection of our publications can be found below.

Journal Articles & Papers:

Douthwaite, B., Johnson, N., Wyatt A. (2022). Using Outcome Trajectory Evaluation to Assess HarvestPlus’ Contribution to the Devleopment of National Biofortification Breeding Program. IFPRI. Washington DC. 

Douthwaite, B., and Child, K. (2021)How Agricultural Reserach for Development Achieves Developmental Outcomes. IWMI, WLE: Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Child, K., Desta, G., Douthwaite, B., Haileslassie, A., van Rooyen, A., Tamene, L., Uhlenbrook, S. (2021). Impact Tracking: a practitioner-developmed approach to scaling agricultural innovaiton in Ethiopia. IWMI: Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Douthwaite, B (2020) How the CGIAR contributes to policy change: learning from four cases. International Potato Center: Lima, Peru.

Douthwaite, B., Ahmad, F., Shah, GM., (2019). Putting Theory of Change into Use in Complex Settings. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation 34(2).

Johnson, N., Douthwaite, B., & Mayne, J. (2018). Using Theory of Change in Agricultural Research for Food and Nutrition Security. Reference Module in Food Science.

Douthwaite, B., Mayne, J., McDougall, C., & Paz-Ybarnegaray, R. (2017). Evaluating complex interventions: A theory-driven realist-informed approach. Evaluation23 (3). 

Douthwaite, B., and Hoffecker, E., (2017). Towards a complexity-aware theory of change for participatory research programs working within agricultural innovation systems. Agricultural Systems. 155 pp. 88–102.

Douthwaite, B., Apgar, J.M., Schwarz, A.M., Attwood, S., Senaratna Sellamuttu, S., Clayton, T., (2017). A new professionalism for agricultural research for development. International Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 15 (2).

Douthwaite, B. (2016) ‘Innovating: a doer’s manifesto’, Prometheus. Routledge, 34(3–4), pp. 264–266.

Paz-Ybarnegaray, R., Douthwaite, B. (2016). Outcome evidencing: a method for enabling and evaluating program interventions in complex systems. American Journal of Evaluation. 1-19.

Douthwaite, B. and Gummert, M. (2010). Learning selection revisited: how can agricultural researchers make a difference? Agricultural Systems 103(5): pp. 245-255.

Douthwaite, B., Alvarez, B.S., Cook, S., Davies, R., George, P., Howell, J., Mackay, R. and Rubiano, J. (2008). Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis: A Practical Application of Program Theory in Research-for-Development. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation. 22(2) pp. 127–159.

Douthwaite, B., T. Kuby, E. van de Fliert and S. Schulz. (2003). Impact Pathway Evaluation: An approach for achieving and attributing impact in complex systems. Agricultural Systems 78 pp. 243-265.

Douthwaite B., J.D.H. Keatinge and J.R. Park. (2002). Learning selection: A model for planning, implementing and evaluating participatory technology development. Agricultural Systems 72 (2) pp. 109-131.

Douthwaite B., J.D.H. Keatinge and J. Park. (2001). Why promising technologies fail: The neglected role of user innovation during adoption. Research Policy 30 (5) pp. 819-836.

Douthwaite, B. N. de Haan, V. M. Manyong and D. Keatinge (2001). Blending ‘Hard’ and ‘Soft’ Science: The ‘Follow the Technology’ Approach to Catalyzing and Evaluating Technology Change. Conservation Ecology 5(2). 

Douthwaite B., G.R. Quick and C.J.M. Tado (1993). The stripper gatherer system for small-area rice harvesting. Agricultural Engineering Journal 2: pp. 183-194.


Douthwaite, B. (2020). Midterm Evaluation of the IOMC Toolbox for Decision Making in Chemicals Management – Phase III. 

Douthwaite, B., Getnet, K., (2020). Outcome Evaluation of the work of the CGIAR Research Program on Land, Water and Ecosystems (WLE) on soil and water management in Ethiopia. Selkie Consulting Ltd. 

Douthwaite, B., Murphy, B., Stott, C., Sladkova, B., Hardcastle, P., Wilson, D. 2019. A Learning Review of the Dedicated Grant Mechanism (DGM) for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Forest Investment Program (FIP) of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF). Itad. 

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2017): Guidelines. Evaluation of innovation in rural development programmes 2014-2020.

FAO, 2017. Mid-term Evaluation of the Project “Capacity Development of Agricultural Innovation Systems” (CDAIS). FAO Office of Evaluation, Rome. 

Douthwaite, B., Ahmed, S., and Mundy, J. 2017. HI-AWARE Learning Review Final Report. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. 

Douthwaite, B., Bos, S. and Scales, J. 2017. Theory of Change – Change of Theory ?! Documented experiences from Humidtropics. Synthesis Report. Humidtropics, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 

Douthwaite, B., Mur, R., Audouin, S., Wopereis, M., Hellin, J., Saley Moussa, A., Bouyer, J. (2017). Agricultural research for development to intervene effectively in complex systems and the implications for research organizations (KIT Working Paper No. 12). Royal Tropical Institute. 

Douthwaite, B., Stott, C. (2018). Guidance Note: Nepal’s Policy and Institutions Facility Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning System. Itad, Brighton, UK.

Douthwaite, B., Ahmad, F., Shah, GM., Schreinemachers, P., Kassie, M., Williams, F., Ciolina, D., Ishrat, J.,
Nagarajan, L., Feldman, A., Ahmad, T., Kadel, L., Devkota, P. (2018). Strengthening AIRCA Monitoring and Evaluation Systems. ICIMOD Working Paper 2018/8. Kathmandu: ICIMOD. 

Book and Book Chapters:

Douthwaite, B. (2002). Enabling innovation: A practical guide to understanding and fostering technological change. Zed Books, London

Douthwaite, B., Alvarez, S., Keatinge, J.D.H., Mackay, R., Thhiele, G., and Watts, J. (2009). “Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis (PIPA) and Research Priority Assessment” , in Raitzer D. & Norton G. (eds) Prioritizing Agricultural Research for Development. Oxford: CABI International. p 8-24

Douthwaite, B., Ekboir J.M., Twomlow, S.J.,  and Keatinge J.D.H. “The Concept of Integrated Natural Resource Management” in Shiferaw, B., Freeman, H.A., and Swinton. S.M. (eds) Natural Resource Management in Agriculture. Oxford: CABI International. p321-340


Douthwaite, Boru. (2021, March 11). “I wouldn’t start from here. Making the case for outcome trajectory evaluation.”  in Context, Trajectories and Assessing Progress Towards Goals. The Evaluation Centre for Complex Health Interventions.